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added chars and test for asset key validation. fixed errors thrown in…

Description

added chars and test for asset key validation. fixed errors thrown in validate_asset_key_string and validate_structured_asset_key, as they were not thrown correctly and would error out if reached.

Summary: Fixes https://github.com/dagster-io/dagster/issues/2965. Also fixes faulty error throws in asset key validation methods.

Test Plan: Added new tests to ensure functionality

Reviewers: sandyryza, yuhan

Reviewed By: sandyryza

Differential Revision: https://dagster.phacility.com/D4577